The Film

These web pages are the sole responsibility of the Long Bow Group, and are in no way affiliated with or sponsored by Jenzabar, Inc.

Related Pages: Summary of Lawsuit | About Chai Ling and Jenzabar, Inc.



Nearly twenty years after the events of 1989, Chai Ling and her company, Jenzabar, tried to censor this website by filing a lawsuit against the Long Bow Group, claiming defamation and trademark infringement. In August 2008, the court threw out the defamation claims (see PDF of the judge's memorandum of decision), and in December 2010, the court dismissed the trademark claims, finding that Jenzabar had "failed to allege any facts or evidence in the summary judgment record to support a trademark claim" (see PDF of the judge's decision). In October 2013, the Superior Court of Massachusetts granted Long Bow's motion for fees, making pointed note of Jenzabar's "abuse of process," its "multiple and shifting legal and factual theories," and its "extortionate conduct." The Court awarded fees to Long Bow in the total amount of $511,943.12, stating that:
The central element of abuse of process is the use of litigation for an ulterior purpose - that is, a purpose other than to achieve relief for the wrong alleged... The overall record of this case leaves no doubt that that is exactly what Jenzabar did; it subjected Long Bow to protracted and costly litigation not to protect the good will of its trademark from misappropriation, but to suppress criticism of Jenzabar's principals and its corporate practices.... Equally indicative of Jenzabar's ulterior purpose is its conduct of discovery, particularly its pursuit of lines of inquiry in depositions that had no conceivable relevance to its claims... Jenzabar's multiple and shifting legal and factual theories, asserted at the various stages of the case, support the same conclusion, as does its objection to pro hac vice admission of the lawyer who assumed Long Bow's defense after it had exhausted its resources. In this regard, the differences in economic power between the parties is one of many circumstances that tends to confirm the conclusion that Jenzabar engaged in extortionate conduct, making this case exceptional. [Read the ruling in its entirety.]


WGBH/FRONTLINE, the award-winning PBS public affairs series which broadcast The Gate of Heavenly Peace in June 1996, issued the following statement on the lawsuit filed by Jenzabar: "FRONTLINE is troubled by what appears to be an effort by Jenzabar to force Long Bow to remove quotes and references to certain news accounts from their site and to stop Long Bow from using the company name as a metatag... FRONTLINE believes that Jenzabar's trademark claim poses first amendment issues and is a potential threat to all newsgathering, reportorial and academic sites. The metataging of a company's name is necessarily an editorial decision and that decision will be chilled if Jenzabar were to prevail in court. Small publishers might be tempted to drop metataging of company names even when accurate and relevant to a reportorial endeavor. In the long run this would ill serve the public by making accurate, truthful information more difficult to find." (August 13, 2009)

For nearly two years after the lawsuit was filed, the Long Bow Group tried to negotiate a settlement with Chai Ling and Jenzabar's lawyers. During this time, we were careful not to publicize the lawsuit. In April 2009, Jenzabar's lawyers declared that they had no interest in settling the case; given our limited resources, Long Bow then decided to appeal to the public for help.

The following open letter asked for support of the principles of free speech and academic freedom which we feel were being threatened by this lawsuit. Signing this appeal letter carries no legal obligations, responsibilities, or commitments of any kind, nor does it mean that you necessarily agree with opinions expressed in either the Long Bow Group's films or its websites.

Jenzabar's lawyer sent us the company's formal response to our appeal and asked that we post it on our site; it can be found on this page, following our appeal.

An Appeal
Chinese Version (中文版)

In Memoriam-
Tiananmen 1989, Free Speech & its Advocates
The Long Bow Group, Boston
(15 April 2009)

We commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the 1989 Protest Movement in China and recall with heavy hearts its brutal suppression. During that movement millions of people in China demonstrated in support of freedom of expression and media openness.

In making the documentary film The Gate of Heavenly Peace (天安门, 1995), and with the creation of its archival website (www.tsquare.tv), the Long Bow Group attempted to reflect the complex motives and stories behind the events of 1989 in an accessible format, and to provide specialists and the public with an ongoing research resource.

The film was attacked sight unseen both by the Chinese government and by several former student activists prior to its première at the New York Film Festival in October 1995. Subsequently, the Chinese authorities demanded it be banned from international film festivals, claiming that showing it would 'mislead the audience and hurt the feelings of 1.2 billion Chinese people.' Meanwhile, the student activists who opposed the film accused us of working for the Chinese government and denounced us as 'a pack of flies, a true disease of our era.' (他们是一群苍蝇, 是我们这个时代真正的疾病.)

Despite controversy The Gate of Heavenly Peace went on to win numerous prestigious film and academic awards in the United States and overseas. The film has continued to draw attention in the mass media, among researchers and educators and, together with the related website, it forms part of the international discussion of China's modern history. We believe that the kind of independent research and cinematic work we produce has only been possible through the support of academic colleagues, public funding agencies, private donations, and under the protective umbrella of free speech.

We are now deeply concerned because our very existence as an independent film and archive group is being threatened by a lawsuit launched by one of the people who, during the 1989 Protest Movement in Beijing, professed support for freedom of speech and democracy.

Chai Ling (Ling Chai), President of Jenzabar, Inc., and in 1989 Commander-in-Chief of the Defend Tiananmen Square Headquarters, and her husband, Robert Maginn, CEO of Jenzabar and a former Senior Partner and Director at Bain & Company, sued the Long Bow Group in 2007 in Boston, Massachusetts, for defamation and trademark infringement. [Click here to read a summary of the lawsuit.]

The lawsuit accused us of defamation because our website links to mainstream media news articles that reported critical information about Jenzabar, Chai Ling, and Robert Maginn. [Click here to visit the relevant pages on this site.] The trademark allegations are based on our use of the name 'Jenzabar' in the website. In the early stages of the litigation, the court threw out the defamation claims but not the trademark claims. The court recognized that 'Jenzabar seems unlikely to prevail on [the trademark claims],' but nevertheless decided to give Jenzabar a chance to try to prove its claims.

As a result, we are facing the accusation that Long Bow -- a non-profit documentary film producer -- is violating the commercial trademark of Jenzabar, a company that sells administrative and management software systems to large educational institutions. Although we clearly have no connection to Jenzabar and do not compete in any respect with Jenzabar, the lawsuit claims that our site diverts and confuses Jenzabar's potential customers. In fact, not one person has ever contacted the Long Bow Group about software or Jenzabar.

Over the years, mainstream US media publications (in particular, The Boston Globe, Forbes and The Chronicle of Higher Education) have produced and archived materials related to Jenzabar and its President, Chai Ling. The Long Bow website merely quotes from these materials, yet we are not aware of any action against these larger publications. In our opinion, this lawsuit is clearly intended to intimidate us into removing these news accounts and other information about Chai Ling and Jenzabar from our website. Indeed, Chai Ling's lawyers have demanded that we remove any reference to the company from our website. We believe that this material is of public interest and it is already in the public domain through other sources. Despite long months of discussion and conciliatory action on our part, undertaken in the hope of bringing an end to what we believe is malicious litigation, the case continues at great expense and risk to us.

The following excerpts from the Complaint filed against Long Bow in May 2007 demonstrate the seriousness of this lawsuit, as a threat to Long Bow and to the principles of political and expressive freedom that we hold so dearly:

--'Motivated by ill-will, their sympathy for officials in the Communist government of China, and a desire to discredit Chai, a former student leader in the pro-democracy movement in China's Tiananmen Square, Long Bow Group, Inc. ("Long Bow") has published false content concerning the Plaintiffs on the website it maintains (the "Site") and has collected a misleading sample of statements from outdated articles to circulate half-truths and falsehoods, and to create false impressions about Jenzabar, Chai, and Maginn. To ensure that this content is widely viewed and as damaging as possible, Long Bow makes unauthorized use of Jenzabar's protected trademarks to direct traffic to the Site. As a consequence, Jenzabar's clients and prospective clients are diverted to the Site and its defamatory content, causing reputational injury and loss of business opportunities.'

--'Upon information and belief, Long Bow's defamatory statements are motivated by malice toward Chai, as well as Long Bow's desire to discredit Chai and advance Long Bow's divergent political agenda.'

The Complaint also makes a demand:

--'For an accounting of the gains and profits realized by Long Bow from its aforesaid wrongful acts, and restitution and/or disgorgement to Jenzabar of Long Bow's ill-gotten gains.'

We believe this is a concerted attempt to undermine a nonprofit film and research organization that has for nearly thirty years presented audiences and educators throughout the world with work on Chinese life and history. Chai and Jenzabar appear determined to drain the limited resources of the Long Bow Group for not complying with their demands that we remove historical materials and data, as well as all references to Jenzabar, from our website. We are of the view that such demands and tactics have dire implications not only for us, but more widely for free speech and independent scholarship. We believe that in commemorating the events of 1989 twenty years on, it is important to reflect also on the value of independent thought, unfettered historical research, the collection and protection of archival materials and the freedom of speech in our own environment.

It is for this reason that we appeal to you--fellow researchers, colleagues in the media, educators and members of the interested public--to visit our website (www.tsquare.tv) to read the materials that have prompted this lawsuit and the legal filings from the case. We ask you to draw your own conclusions about the issues and freedoms at stake.

Please do not take this appeal as an attack on Jenzabar's business or the products and services it provides to its customers. We have no interest in prompting or participating in a boycott and no interest whatsoever in causing harm to Jenzabar's business or its employees. We seek only to preserve our rights, to stand up for the principle of free speech, and to defend ourselves and our work from this unjustified challenge.

If you would like to help, please sign this appeal as a modest gesture of your support for our stand. Please know that your signature carries no legal obligations, responsibilities, or commitments of any kind, nor does it mean that you necessarily agree with opinions expressed in either the Long Bow Group's films or its websites. Rather, it indicates that any instance of a corporation using its money and its power to stifle debate and suppress the historical record is cause for concern, in the academic community and beyond. If you are interested in lending your support, you may add yourself to the list below by emailing your name, title, and affiliation (if any) to: info@longbow.org.

Written and Signed by

Carma Hinton, Professor of Visual Culture & Chinese Studies, George Mason University; Producer, Director, Long Bow Group
Richard Gordon, Producer, Director, President, Long Bow Group
Geremie R. Barmé, Professor of Chinese History, The Australian National University, Australian Research Council Federation Fellow, Fellow of the Australian Academy of Humanities; Producer, Director, Long Bow Group
Nora Chang, Producer, Director, Long Bow Group

Signatories

Patricia Adams, Executive Director
Probe International
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Ah Cheng (钟阿城)
Novelist, scriptwriter, painter
China

Ai Weiwei, Artist
Beijing, China

Yanming An (安延明)
Professor of Chinese and Philosophy
Clemson University, SC

R. David Arkush
Professor of Chinese History
The University of Iowa, IA, USA

Steven Ascher
Filmmaker
Boston, MA, USA

Françoise Aubin
Le Parc de Seronne, Jumelles, France

Pat Aufderheide, Professor and Director
Center for Social Media, School of Communication
American University, Washington, D.C., USA

Tizhong Ba
Programmer Analyst
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Xiaomang Ba, M.D.
Washington, DC, USA

Dr. Limin Bai
Senior Lecturer in Chinese
School of Languages and Cultures
Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

Qianshen Bai
Boston University, MA, USA

C. D. Alison Bailey
Director, Centre for Chinese Research
Institute of Asian Research
University of British Columbia, Canada

Jane Balfour
London, UK

Xiaowen Bao, Ph.D.
General Manger, America Quantum Media
Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Bao Zhiming 包智明, Ph.D.
Singapore

Suzanne Wilson Barnett
Professor Emerita, History
University of Puget Sound, WA, USA

Dr. Ruth Barraclough, Lecturer in Korean Studies
College of Asia & the Pacific
The Australian National University, Australia

北国游子,中国,自由无职业者

Jeffrey Berger, Ph.D.
Professor of Philosophy
Community College of Philadelphia, PA, USA

Zehua Bian
Tokyo, Japan

Sarah Biddulph
Associate Professor and Reader
Law School
The University of Melbourne, Australia

Professor Marc Blecher
Department of Politics
Oberlin College, OH, USA

Professor Harald Bockman
Research Centre for Development and the Environment
University of Oslo, Norway

Dorothy V. Borei
Professor of History Emerita
Guilford College, NC, USA

Dr. Sally Borthwick, Sinologist

Yomi Braester, Professor of Comparative Literature
University of Washington, WA, USA

Dr. Anne-Marie Brady, MRSNZ
Associate Professor in Political Science
School of Political and Social Sciences
University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

John Braithwaite
Regulatory Institutions Network
RSPAS,  ANU College of Asia and the Pacific
Australian National University, Australia

Professor Timothy Brook
Principal, St. John's College
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Patrick Brown
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Beijing, China

Daniel Bryant, Professor Emeritus
Department of Pacific and Asian Studies
University of Victoria
Victoria BC, Canada

Ian Buruma
Luce Professor of Democracy, Human Rights and Journalism
Bard College, NY, USA

Peter Button, Assistant Professor
Department of East Asian Studies
New York University, NY, USA

Jean-Pierre Cabestan
Professor and Head
Department of Government and International Studies
Faculty of Social Sciences
Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong

James Cahill, Professor Emeritus
History of Art
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Suzanne Cahill, Adjunct Professor
University of California, San Diego, CA, USA

Bill Cain
Former Mayor, Albany, CA, USA
Former President, Board of Education, Albany, CA, USA

Daniel Cairns
Graduate Student
University of Chicago, IL, USA

William A. Callahan
Professor of International Politics and Chinese Studies
University of Manchester
Co-Director of the British Inter-university China Centre
Oxford, UK

Dr. Duncan Campbell
Senior Lecturer, China Centre, Faculty of Asian Studies
College of Asia & the Pacific
The Australian National University, Australia

Lily Cantillon

草虾
(89人民大学学生,独立中文作家)

Youfang Cao
Visiting Student
University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA

Thomas R. Carter
Gaithersburg, MD, USA

Dr. Anita Chan
Research Fellow, Contemporary China Centre
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies
The Australian National University, Australia

Roy Chan
Instructor of Chinese Studies
College of William and Mary, VA, USA
Ph.D. Candidate, Comparative Literature
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Dr. Red Chan
University of Warwick
Coventry, UK

陳德民
Tedman Chan, teacher
Member of Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union

Briankle G. Chang
Director, Center for the Study of Communication
Department of Communication
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA

Michael G. Chang, Associate Professor
Department of History and Art History
George Mason University, VA, USA

张泽培
[加拿大多伦多 爱国侨胞]

Hilary Charlesworth
Professor, RegNet
Australian National University, Australia

Chen Eryou
新西兰华文媒体<新报>负责人
Witness, June 4

陈宏达
首都师范大学学生

Jianyi Chen
Mechanical Enginner
Detroit, MI, USA

Lejen Chen, Organic Farmer
Green Cow Farm
Beijing, China

Lin Chen
Software Engineer, AT&T R&D
Middletown, NJ, USA

Lydia Chen
Associate Director
Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies
Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA

陈滔  (Chen Tao)
劳动者  中国云南

Dr. Tina Chen
Associate Professor of History
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

Vivien Chen
New York City, NY, USA

Dr. Wen-Hua Chen
Senior Lecturer in Flight Control Systems
Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering
Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK

Chen Xianyang (陈显扬)
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China

Jiqun Cheng
Editor for Chinese Media Net, Inc.

Cheng Li-Lan

Cheng Oi Yue
Research Assistant
The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Professor Pei-kai Cheng
Director, Chinese Civilisation Centre
City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

William Cheng
Vancouver, BC, Canada

Cheung Yiu Leung (張耀良)
Barrister-at-Law, Hong Kong (香港執業大律師)
Hong Kong Bar Association (香港大律師公會)

Xiaoqing Chi, artist
New Hampshire, USA

迟延崑 Chi Yankun
Retired Research Associate, University of Toronto
Visiting Associate Professor of Taiwan University

Katherine Chi-Burris
Biostatistician
San Diego, CA, USA

Y. Eugene Chin, MD, PhD
Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
Brown University School of Medicine, RI, USA

Stanley Chiu
Chicago, IL, USA

Eva Shan Chou, Associate Professor
English Department
City University of New York, Baruch College, NY, USA

Jonathan Chu
Ontario, Canada

楚狂
(中国大陆自由思想者)

A.E. Clark
Ragged Banner Press

Father Jeremy Clarke S.J.
Visiting Fellow
The Australian National University, Australia

Lisa Claypool
Assistant Professor of Art History and Humanities
Reed College, OR, USA

Cathryn H. Clayton, Assistant Professor
School of Pacific and Asian Studies
University of Hawai'i, HI, USA

Don J. Cohn
Senior Editor, ArtAsiaPacific
New York, NY, USA

Lois Conner
Photographer
New York, NY, USA

Dr. Susette Cook
Lecturer in China Studies
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

Gene Cooper, Professor
Department of Anthropology
University of Southern California, CA, USA

Bryan Corrigan
Teacher, AP Economics
Belmont Public Schools, Belmont, MA, USA

Spencer R. Crew
Clarence J. Robinson Professor of American, African American,
and Public History
George Mason University, VA, USA

Carl Crook
Business Manager
Beijing, China

Michael Crook
Teacher
Western Academy of Beijing, China

Pamela Kyle Crossley, Professor
Department of History and
Program in Asian and Middle Eastern Studies
Dartmouth College, NH, USA

戴廷龙 (Dai Tinglong), Ph.D. student
Carnegie Mellon University, PA, USA

Dr. Francesca Dal Lago
Leiden Institute for Area Studies
Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands

Dr. Gloria Davies
Associate Professor and Convenor of Chinese Studies
Monash University, Australia

Michael E. Davies
Principal, Appletree Hill Solicitors, Australia

Deborah Davis, Professor of Sociology
Yale University, CT, USA

Robert DeCaroli, Associate Professor
George Mason University, VA, USA

Steven DeCaroli, Assistant Professor of Philosophy
Goucher College, MD, USA

Margaret H. Decker
Computer System Specialist
Belmont Public Schools, Belmont, MA, USA

Eric Yanpei Deng, Ph.D.
Scientist and Graduate Student in 1989
California, USA

邓宇声
加州大学尔湾分校材料科学与工程系在读硕士
University of California, Irvine, CA, USA

Dr. Kirk A. Denton
Associate Professor, East Asian Languages and Literature
The Ohio State University, OH, USA

Françoise Derré, writer, translator
Paris, France

Joel Devalcourt
University of New Orleans, USA

Kaley Deweese

Neil J. Diamant
Associate Professor of Asian Law and Society
Dickinson College, PA, USA

Chen Ding
Associate Professor of Computer Science
University of Rochester, NY, USA

Zheng Ding, Professor of Physics
Normandale Community College
Bloomington, MN, USA

Professor Stephanie Hemelryk Donald
Professor of Chinese Media Studies
University of Sydney, Australia

Elvira & Vasco Dones, Producers
Dones Media LLC, Rockville, MD, USA

Hua Dong
Academic Specialist
Coordinator, Chinese Language Program
Northeastern University, MA, USA

Darrell Dorrington
Menzies Library
The Australian National University, Australia

Adam Driver, Ph.D. Candidate
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies
The Australian National University, Australia

Marie-Pierre Duhamel, film critic and translator
Paris, France

Emily Dunn, Ph.D. Candidate
Asia Institute/History
University of Melbourne, Australia

Professor Michael Dutton
Research Chair, Professor of Political Cultures
Griffith University, Australia

Xujun Eberlein, independent writer
Author, "Apologies Forthcoming"
Massachusetts, USA

Richard Louis Edmonds
Visiting Professor in Geographical Studies
University of Chicago, IL, USA

Kingsley Edney
PhD Candidate
School of Social and Political Sciences
University of Melbourne, Australia

Professor Mark Elliott
Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations
Harvard University, MA, USA

Benjamin A. Elman
Professor of East Asian Studies & History
Princeton University, NJ, USA

Sarah S. Elman, Head of Technical Services
C.V. Starr East Asian Library
Columbia University, NY, USA

Bill Engst
Marlboro, NJ, USA

Karen Engst
Pau, France

Nicoals Engst-Matthews, student
Pau, France

Harriet Evans
University of Westminster, UK

Andrew Fair
Law Offices of Andrew L. Fair
New York, NY, USA

Ruiping Fan
Associate Professor
Department of Public & Social Administration
City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

范英东

Professor Judith Farquhar
Max Palevsky Professor of Anthropology and of Social Sciences
Chicago University, IL, USA

Professor Mary Farquhar
Executive member and former President, Chinese Studies
Association of Australia

Siyen Fei, Assistant Professor
Department of History
University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA

Leping Feng
KTH (The Royal Institute of Technology)
Stockholm, Sweden

凤鸣
加拿大多伦多 (Toronto, Canada)

Jesseca Ferguson
Continuing Part Time Faculty
School of the Museum of Fine Arts
Boston, MA, USA

Dr. Susan Fernsebner
Assistant Professor of History and American Studies
University of Mary Washington
Fredericksburg, VA, USA

Joseph Fewsmith
Professor
Boston University, MA, USA

Dr Stephen FitzGerald
Chair, Griffith Asia Institute Council
Griffith University
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Inaugural Fellow, Australian Institute of International Affairs
Former Australian Ambassador to China

Nick Fraser
Commissioning Editor, BBC

Andy Friend

Xinming Fu, MD 
Irvine, CA, USA

傅正明 (Fu, Zhengming)
学者,瑞典松兹瓦尔市 (Sweden)

Ellen V. Fuller
Assistant Professor
East Asian Languages, Literatures and Cultures
Studies in Women and Gender
University of Virginia, VA, USA

馮偉才
香港嶺南大學社區學院講師
Fung Waichoi, Lecturer
Community College at Lingnan University
Hong Kong

Peter L. Galison
Joseph Pellegrino University Professor
Department of Physics
Harvard University, MA, USA

Carrillo Gantner

Vallejo Gantner

Ziyin Gantner

Professor Mobo Gao
Chair of Chinese Studies
Director, Confucius Institute
Centre for Asian Studies
The University of Adelaide, Australia

Qiang Gao, Staff Engineer
Qualcomm Inc.
San Diego, CA, USA

Xiaochun Gao, Staff Engineer
Sun Microsystems Inc.
Santa Clara, CA, USA

Howard Gardner
Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education
Cambridge, MA, USA

Andrea Geyling
Modern World History Instructor
Milton Academy, MA, USA

Christina Gilmartin
Associate Professor of History
Northeastern University, MA, USA
Research Associate of the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies
Harvard University, MA, USA

Peter Gilmartin, Program Director
Primary Source, MA, USA

Professor Dr. Sean Golden
Director, Institut d'Estudis Internacionals i Interculturals
(Institute for International & Intercultural Studies)
Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain

Jeremy Goldkorn, Editor
Danwei.org (www.danwei.org), Beijing, China

Andrea S. Goldman
Assistant Professor of Qing and Modern China
Department of History
University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Joshua Goldstein
Associate Professor, History Department
University of Southern California, CA, USA

Jack Golson AO, Emeritus Professor
Department of Archaeology and Natural History
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies
The Australian National University, Australia

Bryna Goodman
Professor of Chinese History
University of Oregon, OR, USA

Professor David S G Goodman
Professor of Chinese Politics and Director
Institute of Social Sciences
University of Sydney, Australia

Dr. Christopher Gregg
Term Assistant Professor
Department of History and Art History
George Mason University, VA, USA

Gerald V. Griffith, Producer
Cartesian Coordinates
Fairfax, VA, USA

Misha M. Griffith, Graduate Researcher
George Mason University, VA, USA

Alison Groppe, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Chinese
Department of East Asian Languages & Literatures
University of Oregon, OR, USA

A. Tom Grunfeld
SUNY Distinguished Teaching Professor
Empire State College/ SUNY, NY, USA

Guo100
云南 (Yunnan)

E Guo
Beijing student in 1989
AT&T Network Engineer

Guoting (Thomas) Guo
Chinese human rights lawyer
LLM student
University of Victoria Law School, Canada

Jianlong Guo, reporter
Beijing, China

Guo Luoji
Senior Research Fellow, Harvard Law School
Cambridge, MA, USA
郭罗基
哈佛大学法学院资深研究员

郭庆海
独立评论人

Kenneth J. Hammond, Professor of History
New Mexico State University, NM, USA

韩凯臣
电影工作者

Mette Halskov Hansen, Professor in Chinese Studies
Department of Culture Studies and Oriental Languages
University of Oslo, Norway

Dr. Temtsel Hao, independent journalist
London, UK

Dr. Mark Harrison
Senior Lecturer in Chinese
School of Asian Languages and Studies
University of Tasmania, Australia

David Hawkes, translator and writer
Oxford, England

Nancy Hearst
Fairbank Center
Harvard University, MA, USA

Paul Heikkila, Ph.D. candidate
Columbia University, NY, USA

Professor Gail Hershatter
Distinguished Professor, Department of History
University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA

Christian A. Hess
RCUK Academic Fellow/Assistant Professor
Department of History
University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

Joan Hinton
Beijing, China

Dahpon David Ho
Assistant Professor in History, American University
Washington, D.C., USA

Isaac Ho, student
University of Southern California, CA, USA

Mack P. Holt
Professor of History
Director of Graduate Studies
George Mason University, VA, USA

Brian Holton, Assistant Professor
Department of Chinese & Bilingual Studies
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

Laura Hostetler
Associate Professor & Director of Graduate Studies
Department of History
University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA

侯钧夫
私企员工
中华人民共和国草民

胡泊
北京东润菊香书屋公司编辑

Kelvin Y Hu
Attorney at Law
Chicago, IL, USA

Hu Minghui, Assistant Professor
Department of History
University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA

Steve Hu
Senior Design Engineer
California Micro Devices Corporation
Milpitas, CA, USA

Hua Ruifang (Shanghai, China)
Graduate student in Audiovisual Production
French National Audiovisual Institute (Institut national de l'audiovisuel)

Guangping Huang, Ph.D
NJ, USA

Huang Heqing, freelance writer
Spain

Dr. Nicole Huang
Director, Center for East Asian Studies
Associate Professor of Chinese Literature
East Asian Languages and Literature
University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, USA

黄涛
北京大学 学生

Vivian Huang
General Manager/Curator
Chinese American Arts Council/Gallery 456, NY, USA
Former Festival Director
Asian American International Film Festival, NY, USA

Xiaomin Huang
New York, NY, USA

Huang Zhuoming, student
Columbia, SC, USA

Theodore Huters, Professor of Chinese
University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Chunsin Hwang
Associate Professor, Economics
National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan

Eric Hyer
Associate Professor and Asian Studies Coordinator
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT, USA

John Israel, Professor Emeritus
University of Virginia, VA, USA

Dr. Tamara Jacka
Senior Fellow (Associate Professor)
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies
College of Asia and the Pacific
The Australian National University, Australia

Linda Jaivin, novelist and independent scholar and translator
Sydney, Australia

Dr. Nancy Jervis
Independent Scholar
New York City, NY, USA

Chang Ji, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Texas State University - San Marcos, TX, USA

Hong Jiang
President, Yan-Huang Performing Arts

Nan Jiang, Associate Professor
University of Maryland, MD, USA

江一飞
慶応義塾大学
日本 (Japan)

Ying Jiang
Vancouver, BC, Canada

Jim Jin, Senior Lecturer
School of Economics
University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK

John Jirik, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Journalism & Communication
Globalization & Social Change
Lehigh University, PA, USA

David Johnson
Professor of History
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Heidi Johnson
Columbia, SC, USA

Professor Margaret Jolly
Head Gender Relations Centre
College of Asia and the Pacific
The Australian National University, Australia

Jeanne Jordan
Filmmaker
Boston, MA, USA

Professor William A. Joseph
Department of Political Science
Wellesley College, MA, USA

Professor Ellen R. Judd
Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Professor
Department of Anthropology
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

Harold L. Kahn, Professor emeritus
Stanford University, CA, USA

Jian Kang, MD, PhD
Associate Professor
New York Medical College, NY, USA

Kang Sen
USA

Kang Wenqing
History Department
Cleveland State University, OH, USA

Jian Kao
Engineer of Telcordia Technology
Marlboro, NJ, USA

Yasuhiko Karasawa
Associate Professor (History)
Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan

Professor Fumitoshi Karima
Graduate School of Arts & Sciences
The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Rebecca E. Karl, Associate Professor
East Asian Studies & History Departments
New York University, NY, USA

Nancy D. Kates
Producer-Director
Berkeley, CA, USA

Dr. Michael Keane, Associate Professor
Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Dr. David Kelly
China Research Centre
University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

Mills Kelly
Associate Dean for Enrollment Development
College of Humanities and Social Sciences
Director, Master of Arts in Global Affairs
George Mason University, VA, USA

William W. Kelly
Sumitomo Professor of Japanese Studies
Yale University, CT, USA

Alec (Do Woo) Kim
Engine Auditor, Airworthiness Compliance
Qantas, Sydney, Australia

Dr. Marjorie King
The American School in Taiwan and Independent Scholar
Taiwan

Neal J. King, Telecommunications Consultant
Munich, Germany

Richard King, Director
Centre for Asia-Pacific Initiatives
University of Victoria
Victoria BC, Canada

Winnie King
Research Fellow in Chinese International Political Economy
Centre for East Asian Studies, University of Bristol and
Fellow of the British Inter-University China Centre
Bristol UK

Dr. Andrew Kipnis
The Australian National University, Australia

Victor Koski student
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
History Department
George Mason University, VA, USA

Natasha Koval-Paden, pianist
Department of Music
Middlebury College, VT, USA

Professor Richard Kraus
Political Science
University of Oregon, OR, USA

Dr. Joachim Kurtz
Associate Professor of Chinese
Dept. of Russian and East Asian Languages and Cultures
Emory University, GA, USA
Research Group Director
Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
Berlin, Germany

林静
Lam Ching
Undergraduate student
University of British Columbia, Canada
Former chairperson, Social Movement Resources Center
HKFS (45th), Hong Kong

Tony Lan
Mediagrif Interactive Technologies
Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Helen Lansdowne
Centre for Asia-Pacific Initiatives
University of Victoria
Victoria, BC, Canada

Fabio Lanza
Assistant Professor, Department of History
University of Arizona, AZ, USA

May Lau
Queens College, CUNY
Flushing, NY, USA

Yan Yam Eric Lau
Hong Kong

Kevin Lawrence
Associate Director, Teach China
China Institute, NY, USA

Michael R. Leaman, Publisher
Reaktion Books, London, UK

Eugenia Lean
Assistant Professor in Chinese History
Columbia University, NY, USA

Amy Lee, graduate student
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Andrew Y. Lee, Ph.D.
University Libraries
George Mason University, VA, USA

Chin-Chuan Lee
Professor Emeritus of Journalism and Mass Communication
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA

Frank Lee
Lockheed Martin Inc.

Jane C Lee
Hong Kong

Ken Lee
Information Specialist
George Mason University, VA, USA

Dr. Mabel Lee
Honorary Associate Professor in Chinese Studies
Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities
University of Sydney, Australia

Paul Lee, Ph.D., J.D.
Software System Engineer
Tinton Falls, NJ, USA

Judith A. Lerner, PhD
Independent Scholar
New York, NY, USA

Andre Lévy, professeur émérite à l'université de Bordeaux
University of Bordeaux, France

Hanjiao Li
Germany

Li Jie, Ph.D. Candidate
East Asian Languages and Civilizations and Film Studies
Harvard University, MA, USA

Jin Li, Ed.D.
Associate Professor of Education and Human Development
Brown University, RI, USA

李军
澳大利亚 (Australia)

Lillian M. Li, Professor of History
Swarthmore College, PA, USA

李南央 (Li Nanyang)
磁铁工程师
美国SLAC国家加速器实验室
"六四"后失去工作,经前苏联、欧洲,碾转来美国定居

Shibin Li
Senior Principal Software Engineer, HP
USA

Weiye Li, Professor
Drexel University Medical School, PA, USA
Li Xiaoxing
Minnesota, USA

Yahui M. Li
VPISystems, Inc.
Marlboro, NJ, USA

Xiao Huan Liang, Senior Research Associate
Genentech Inc.
San Francisco, CA, USA

廖亦武
中国四川诗人和作家

Poh Lim
Professor, Skyline College
CA, USA

Lin Chun
London School of Economics, UK

Huan Lin
Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Pearl Lin
Hualian Travel International Corporation
CT, USA

Vivian Lin, Professor of Public Health
School of Public Health
La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia

Ling Shen
Software Engineer
Siemens Corporate Research, Inc.

Liu Baisha, Lecturer in Chinese
University of Oslo, Norway

刘华涛,普通司机
武汉, 湖北,中国 (Wuhan, China)

劉季倫
台灣政治大學歷史系副教授

Newton Liu

Tom Liu
Senior engineer
Bay Area, USA

Liu Xiaodi
Utica, NY, USA

Liu Xiaohong, writer and independent scholar, USA
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies

Xiaoxi Liu, Ph.D
Program Manager, GE

Liu Xiaoyuan, Professor of History
Iowa State University, IA, USA

Xinru Liu, Professor
The College of New Jersey, NJ, USA

Peter Lorentzen, Assistant Professor of Political Science
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Tenzin Losel
Researcher at a Tibet Support Organization
Dharamsala, India

Jerry Lou, teacher
Participant, 1989 demonstrations
Richmond, BC, Canada

Michael Lou
History Department
Milton Academy, MA, USA

Dr. Lu Hongwei, Associate Professor
Asian Studies
University of Redlands, CA, USA

Huixia Lu
Filmmaker
Champlain College, VT, USA

Xiaochen Lu
UIUC
Champaign, IL, USA

Dr. Ludi (芦笛), retired scientist, writer

Alexander Lugg, Ph.D. Candidate
Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

Luo Xiaozhong

Baolin Ma
Houston, TX, USA

Jean Ma, Assistant Professor
Art and Art History
Stanford University, CA, USA

Professor Colin Mackerras
Emeritus Professor, AO, Griffith Business School
Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

Rebecca MacKinnon, Assistant Professor
Journalism & Media Studies Centre
University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Professor John Makeham
College of Asia and the Pacific
The Australian National University, Australia

Professor Susan Mann
History Department
University of California, Davis, CA, USA

Cherie Martin
Former Producer New England Film & Video Festival
Former Adjunct Professor of Film, Boston University
Seattle, WA, USA

Maria Rita Masci, translator of contemporary Chinese literature
Rome, Italy

Dr. James Matthews, Geologist
Total, Exploration and Production
Pau, France

Carol C. Mattusch
Mathy Professor of Art History
George Mason University, VA, USA

Rachel May, editor and translator
Canberra, Australia

Dr. Lewis Mayo
Lecturer in Chinese Studies
Asia Institute
University of Melbourne, Australia

Edward McCord
Associate Professor of History and International Affairs
Director, Taiwan Education and Research Program
Elliott School of International Affairs
George Washington University, Washington, D.C., USA

Dr. Edward McDonald
School of Asian Studies
University of Auckland, New Zealand

Anne McLaren, Associate Professor
Asia Institute, Chinese Language and Culture Studies
University of Melbourne, Australia

Paul Meng, journaliist
Cybermedia Network Inc., Vancouver, Canada

Alice Lyman Miller
Research fellow and general editor, China Leadership Monitor
Hoover Institution, Stanford University, CA, USA

Joseph T. Miller, Ph.D.
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Political Science
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Professor John Minford
Head, China Centre, College of Asia & the Pacific
The Australian National University, Australia

茉莉 (Mo Lihua)
教师,瑞典松兹瓦尔市 (Sweden)

Professor Brian Moloughney
Head of the School of Languages and Cultures
Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

Michelle S. Mood, Visiting Assistant Professor
Political Science and International Studies
Kenyon College, OH, USA

Professor Andrew Morris
Professor and Department Chair, History Department
California Polytechnic State University, CA, USA

Dr. Katherine Morton
Department of International Relations
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies
The Australian National University, Australia

Dr. Russell Leigh Moses
Dean, The Beijing Center for Chinese Studies
Beijing, China

Marc L. Moskowitz
Visual Anthropology Review Editor, American Anthropologist
Acting Director of Asian Studies, Department of Anthropology
University of South Carolina, SC, USA

Robb Moss, Filmmaker
Rudolf Arnheim Lecturer on Filmmaking
Harvard University, MA, USA

Mu Aili, Assistant Professor
Iowa State University, IA, USA

Marco Mueller, Director
Venice International Film Festival
Venice, Italy

Alfreda Murck, independent scholar
Beijing, China

Dr. Mary Ann Murphy
Associate Professor, Communication Studies
Director of the Center for Community Outreach at
Dyson College and Project Pericles at Pace
Pace University, NY, USA

Julia K. Murray, Professor of Art History
University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, USA

Gaby Naher
Chair, Sydney PEN Writers in Prison Committee
Sydney, Australia

Rebecca Nedostup
Associate Professor of Chinese History
Boston College, MA, USA

Jennifer M. Neighbors
Assistant Professor
History Department and Asian Studies Program
University of Puget Sound, WA, USA

Simon T M Ng
The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Joe Nieh
Writer, columnist
Hong Kong

Danny Nikolovski
Technical Records
Airworthiness Compliance & Maintenance Contracts
Qantas Engineering Services, Sydney, Australia

Lev Nishbor, writer
NY, USA

Professor Michael Nylan
Chinese History
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Tim Oakes
Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Geography
University of Colorado, CO, USA

Judith Pabian
Head, Research Grants Office
College of Asia and the Pacific
The Australian National University, Australia

Scott Pacey, Ph.D. Candidate
The Australian National University, Australia

Professor John N. Paden
Clarence J. Robinson Professor of International Studies
Co-Director, Center for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
George Mason University, VA, USA

Professor William Paden
Department of Religion
University of Vermont, VT, USA

Paola Paderni, Press Attaché
Italian Embassy, Beijing, China

Shuchong Pan, Assistant Professor
Department of Medicine
Mayo Clinic, USA

Alessandro Pang
Assistant Manager, Nielsen

Timothy Patterson
Sinologist
Denver, Colorado, USA
Beijing, China

Eric Pelzl
Instructor of Mandarin Chinese
Wisconsin Lutheran College, WI, USA

Richard Peña, Program Director
The Film Society of Lincoln Center
New York, NY, USA

Richard Pendleton
Serials Assistant
Countway Library of Medicine
Boston, MA, USA

Eric Peng, Network Engineer
National Science Foundation
Arlington, VA, USA

Xiaojia Peng, artist
New Hampshire, USA

Dr. Benjamin Penny
Chair, ANU China Institute, Fellow, History of China
Division of Pacific and Asian History
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies,
The Australian National University, Australia

Peter C. Perdue
Professor of History
Yale University

Stephen Philion, Assistant Professor
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN, USA

Andrew Pike
Managing Director
Ronin Films, Australia

Dr. Brian Platt
Associate Professor and Chair
Department of History and Art History
George Mason University, VA, USA

Judy Polumbaum, Professor
School of Journalism & Mass Communication
The University of Iowa, IA, USA

Professor Kenneth Pomeranz
Chancellor's Professor of History
University of California, Irvine, CA, USA

Freda Qian, Engineer
CSE, CA, USA

Qiao Huizhen
Director (Retired)
Beijing Review, Spanish edition

Helen H. Quigley
Harvard College Library
Cambridge, MA, USA    

Shakhar Rahav
Assistant Professor in Asian Studies
University of Haifa, Israel

David Ranck
Miami, FL

Bradly W. Reed, Associate Professor
Department of History
University of Virginia, VA, USA

Ren Chao
Pembroke College, University of Oxford
Oxford, UK

Zhanping Ren
Ottawa, ON, Canada

B. Ruby Rich
Professor & Chair
Community Studies Department
& Social Documentation Program
University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA

Jeffrey L. Richey, Ph.D.
Director, Asian Studies Program
Berea College, KY, USA

Dr. Richard Rigby
Executive Director
ANU China Institute, Australia

Sidney Rittenberg, Sr.
Visiting Professor of China Studies
Pacific Lutheran University, WA, USA

William Riukas
New York, NY, USA

Martin Rivlin
New York, NY, USA

Dr. Claire Roberts
Research Fellow, Division of Pacific and Asian Studies
RSPAS, The Australian National University, Australia

Moss Roberts, Professor of Chinese
New York University, NY, USA

Alice Ross Chase Robeson, independent scholar
M.A. Historical Studies
Annapolis, MD, USA

Professor Lisa Rofel
Chair, Department of Anthropology
University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA

Carlos Rojas
Assistant Professor of Chinese Cultural Studies
Duke University, NC, USA

David Rong, Senior Network Engineer
PLANIT Technology LLC Group

Marni Rosner, Teacher
International School of Beijing-Shunyi, China

Lester Ross
WilmerHale, Beijing Office
Beijing, China

Madelyn Ross
Director, China Initiatives
George Mason University, VA, USA

Rulersea
Jilin, China

Haun Saussy
Bird White Housum Professor of Comparative Literature
Yale University, CT, USA

Scott Savitt
Research Fellow, Chinese Media Studies Program
Duke University, NC, USA

Sigrid Schmalzer, Assistant Professor
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA

Dr. R. Keith Schoppa
Professor/Doehler Chair in Asian History
Loyola College in Maryland, MD, USA

Susan Schulze, Ph.D.
History and Art History Department
George Mason University, VA, USA

Professor Mary Scott
Humanities
San Francisco State University, CA, USA

Professor Mark Selden
Cornell University, NY, USA

Jianying Shang, student
University of Florida, FL, USA

Hugh Shapiro
Associate Professor of Chinese History
University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA

Dajun Shen (Sang Ye)
Research Fellow, College of Asia & the Pacific
The Australian National University, Australia

Dr. Rui Shen (沈睿)
Assistant Professor
United States Naval Academy

William Shen

Yanmei Shen
VA, USA

Shi Xin, financial professional
Witness, June 4

Yaming Shi, MD
CA, USA

Shi Zengchao
France

Victor Shih
Assistant Professor of Political Science
Northwestern University, IL, USA

Mark Sidel
Professor of Law, Faculty Scholar, and Lauridsen Family Fellow
University of Iowa, IA, USA

Silk
Changchun

Sim Chi Yin
China Correspondent, Beijing Bureau
The Straits Times, Singapore

S.A. Smith
European University Institute
Florence, Italy

Matthew H. Sommer
Associate Professor of Chinese History
Stanford University, CA, USA

Jim Song

Limin Song
Health Educator
University of Hawaii, HI, USA

Song Shaopeng, Associate Professor
Renmin University of China

Song Yongshen

Howard R. Spendelow
Associate Professor of History
Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA
Course Chair for China Advanced Area Studies, Foreign Service Institute
George P. Shultz National Foreign Affairs Training Center
Arlington, VA, USA

Naomi Standen
Senior Lecturer in Chinese History
School of Historical Studies
Newcastle University, UK

Anne Marie Stein
Dean of Professional and Continuing Education
Massachusetts College of Art and Design, MA, USA

Hans Steinmüller, Ph.D. candidate
Department of Anthropology
London School of Economics, UK

David Stoll
Associate Professor of Anthropology
Middlebury College, VT, USA

Professor David Strand
Charles A. Dana Chair of Political Science and East Asian Studies
Dickinson College, PA, USA

Andrew Strominger, Professor of Physics
Harvard University, MA, USA

Tao Su, Ph.D.
School of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy
University of California San Francisco
CA, USA

Ellen Winner
Professor of Psychology, Boston College
Senior Research Associate, Project Zero
Harvard Graduate School of Education
Massachusetts, USA

Xiaoyan Cheyenne Su, Ph.D.
Materials Scientist, Tortex Inc.
Portland, OR, USA

Frances Xiaofeng Sun
Director, MamaBless Ltd, UK

Dr. Warren Sun
Chinese Studies Program
Monash University, Australia

Yan Sun, Professor, Political Science
Graduate Center and Queens College
City University of New York, NY, USA

Leslie Swartz
Senior Vice President, Boston Children's Museum
Boston, MA, USA

Dr. Li Tana
Senior Fellow, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies
The Australian National University, Australia

Baiqiao Tang
chair, Hunan Student Autonomous Federation, 1989
jailed for 19 months
chair, China Peace and Democracy Federation
唐柏桥
原湖南高自联主席,入狱19个月
现为中国和平民主联盟主席

Li Tang
CA, Senior Software Engineer
Enterprise System Management
USA

Ming Tang
General Manager
Sky Parts, Inc., IL, USA

唐小昭
上海,自由职业者

Harold M. Tanner
Department of History
University of North Texas, TX, USA

Dr. Jeremy Taylor
Lecturer, School of East Asian Studies
University of Sheffield, England

Professor Frederick Teiwes
Emeritus Professor of Chinese Politics at the University of Sydney
University of Sydney, Australia

Dr. Greg M. Thomas, Associate Professor
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Saul Thomas, Ph.D. Candidate
Department of Anthropology
University of Chicago, IL, USA

Bruce Thompson
Professor, Milwaukee School of Engineering
Milwaukee Board of School Directors
Milwaukee, USA

Neil Thompson
New York, NY, USA

Ellen Wiley Todd
Associate Professor, Art History
George Mason University, VA, USA

Maureen Todhunter
Griffith University, Australia

Dr. Luigi Tomba, co-editor, The China Journal
Department of Political and Social Change
College of Asia & the Pacific
The Australian National University, Australia

Dr. Jasmine Tong
Assistant Professor of Translation
Lingnan University, Hong Kong

TTong
自由摄影师
中国 黑龙江

Nhung Tuyet Tran
Canada Research Chair in Southeast Asian History
Assistant Professor, Department of History
University of Toronto, Canada

Professor James Trefil
Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Physics
George Mason University, VA, USA

JB Treseler, teacher

Dr. Sue Trevaskes
Research Fellow, Griffith Asia Institute
Griffith University, Australia

Steve Tsang
Fellow and University Reader in Politics
St Antony's College
Oxford University, UK

Tashi D Tsering
Tibetan, ex-political prisoner
Sweden

Professor Jonathan Unger
Contemporary China Centre
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies
The Australian National University, Australia

Cristina E. Villatoro
International Studies Student
Kenyon College, OH, USA

Haizhen Vission, writer
Nelson, BC, Canada

Lindi Vission, student
University of Victoria, BC, Canada

Richard Vission (R.Vision), novelist
Nelson, BC, Canada

Dr. Paola Voci
Senior Lecturer, Department of Languages and Cultures
University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Ezra F. Vogel
Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences, Emeritus
and former director, Fairbank Center
Harvard University, MA, USA

Joanna Waley-Cohen
Collegiate Professor of Chinese History
Department of History
New York University, NY, USA

Dr. Aihe Wang, Associate Professor
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Professor Ban Wang
East Asian Studies and Comparative Literature
Stanford University, CA, USA

Dong Wang
Engineer
Saskatoon, SK, Canada

Geng Wang
Kingston, Canada

Hongying Wang
Director, East Asia Program
The Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs
Syracuse University, NY, USA

Kidd Wang, software engineer
China

Wang Lixiong, writer
Beijing, China

Mei Wang
Assistant Professor of Finance and Financial Markets
Swiss Banking Institute
University of Zurich, Switzerland

Mi Wang
Application Support Analyst
T&O, Bank of Montreal, Canada

Qian Wang
Associate Professor and Robert L. Sumwalt Professor of Chemistry
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
University of South Carolina, SC, USA

Ruike Wang, student
Ohio Wesleyan University, OH, USA

王希哲
中国自由作家, 居住美国湾区

Wei Wang, software developer
Vancouver, BC, Canada

王彦涛, 工程师
中国

王一凯
Yikai Wang, Ph.D. Candidate, Research Assistant
Institute for Empirical Research in Economics
University of Zurich, Switzerland

王藏
中国大陆自由诗人,思想者

Wang Zheng, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Women's Studies Department
University of Michigan, MI, USA

Ding Xiang Warner
Associate Professor of Chinese Literature
Cornell University, NY, USA

Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, Professor of History
University of California, Irvine, CA, USA

Wei Wei, writer
Manchester, UK

Sasha Su-Ling Welland, Assistant Professor
Anthropology & Women Studies
University of Washington, WA, USA

Raymond Wiest, Professor Emeritus
Department of Anthropology
University of Manitoba, Canada

Ellen Winner
Senior Research Associate at Project Zero
Harvard Graduate School of Education
Professor of Psychology, Boston College
Boston, MA, USA

Wong Sum-Lung Tsing-Kong (王淨江)
Ph.D. Candidate in Philosophy
University of Essex, UK

Sophia Woodman
PhD Candidate
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Teresa Wright, Professor and Graduate Coordinator
Department of Political Science
California State University, Long Beach, CA, USA

Professor Tim Wright
Professor of Chinese Studies
School of East Asian Studies and White Rose East Asia Centre
The University of Sheffield, UK

Dakun Wu
Financial Analyst, Credit Suisse
Morrisville, NC, USA

Dr. Guoguang Wu
Chair in China and Asia-Pacific Relations
Centre for Asia-Pacific Initiatives
University of Victoria, Victoria BC, Canada

Wu Liangyu (武亮宇), student
China

Rochelle Wu

Wu Wenjian, artist
Sentenced to prison after June 4
Beijing, China

吴言
万维, 贝壳村博客写, 自由职业者, 澳洲

Wu Yi-Li
Associate Professor of History
Chair, International Studies Program
Albion College, MI, USA

吴勇
四川公民 自由职业

伍之
自由艺术家,柏林 (Berlin, Germany)

Dess  X
在日留学

Xia Yu, student
Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France

Jing Xie
Student, Macquarie University
Sydney, NSW, Australia

Anne Xu, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Chinese
Department of Classical and Modern Language
Austin College, TX, USA

许北方 (Xu Beifang)

Yan Chen

J.Y. Yan-Gadoury
Law School Student
Vancouver, BC, Canada

Bin Yang, truck driver
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Bruce 杨
Engineer, Ph.D.
Orlando, FL, USA

Guobin Yang
Associate Professor
Asian/Middle Eastern Cultures
Barnard College, Columbia University, NY, USA

Dr. Lisong Yang
Durham University, UK

Professor Mayfair Yang
Director, Asian Studies Program
University of Sydney, Australia

Min Yang, Librarian
Countway Library
Harvard Medical School, MA, USA

Rae Yang, Associate Professor
East Asian Studies Department
Dickinson College, PA, USA

Renren Yang
PhD Student, Comparative Literature
DLCL, Stanford University, CA, USA

Show Yang
Art China Now
Cambridge and Groton, MA, USA

Walt G. Yang, student

Wenqi Yang, bookkeeper
A G Geophysical Products, Inc.

Yuhua Yang, Architect
James Cheng Architects Inc.
Vancouver, B.C., Canada

Dr. Mike Yao
Assistant Professor of Media and Communication
City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Weili Ye, Professor of History and Women's Studies
University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA, USA

William Ye
Legal professional
The Hanleen Ltd.
Dublin, Republic of Ireland

Catherine Yeh, Associate Professor
Department of Modern Languages and Comparative Literature
Boston University, MA, USA

Suzanna Yeh
Berkeley, CA, USA

许毅 Yi Xu, Ph.D.
Reader in Speech Science
Department of Speech, Hearing and Phonetic Sciences
University College London, UK

Sam Zhiguang Yin, Ph.D. Candidate
Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies
President, Cambridge International Forum for Development
University of Cambridge, UK

Marilyn Young, Professor of History
New York University, NY, USA

Bernard Yu
Software engineer
Rockville, MD, USA

Yao Yu
Harvard University ('07)
Software engineer, VA, USA

Yu Zhiguan, freelance writer
Ireland

Fei Yuan
Traffic Engineer, TranSystems
SC, USA

万源 (Wan Yuan)
Ph.D. student of Bioengineering
University of Texas at Arlington, TX, USA

Yue Kui, nurse
Sydney, Australia

Zang Dongsheng, Assistant Professor of Law
University of Washington School of Law, WA, USA

Dr. Peter Zarrow
Institute of Modern History
Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

Elya J. Zhang, Assistant Professor in History
Fordham University, NY, USA

张涵

Jimin Zhang, Ph.D.
Principal Scientist I
Biological Technologies Department, Wyeth
Cambridge, MA, USA

Dr. Jing Zhang
Assistant Professor of Chinese Language and Culture
New College of Florida, Sarasota, FL, USA

Karl Zhang, Ph.D.
Associate Professor and Director of Chinese Program
Department of Modern and Classical Language
Academic Director, Confucius Institute
George Mason University, VA, USA

张立磊, 学生
国家海洋局第二海洋研究所

Paul Zhang
Research Scientist
Texas A&M University, TX, USA

张涛
新西兰教师

张涛 (Zhang Tao)
中国人民大学在读研究生 (Master's candidate, Renmin University of China)

Yongheng Zhang
Ph.D. student, Department of Mathematics
Purdue University, IN, USA

張彰翰
廣東, 學生

Zheng Zhang
RBS GBM
Hong Kong

赵文磐
原陕西师范大学物理系85级学生

Xijia Zhao
San Diego, CA, USA

Yingyu Zhao
Shangdong University graduate, 1989

甄別離
自由從業人員

Da Zheng, Professor
English Department
Suffolk University, MA, USA

郑新中 (Zheng Xinzhong)
Shanghai, China

Ruikun Zhong, MD
Project Scientist, Moores UCSD Cancer Center
University of California, San Diego, CA, USA

Zhong Xueping, Assistant Professor
Tufts University, MA, USA

Howard Zhou, Technical Advisor
Toronto, Canada

Betsy Zhu
Microsoft

Yayun Zhu
Student
Waseda University, Japan

Wenren Zhuang, teacher
Beijing University graduate

Victor Zhuo
Principal software engineer
EMC Corp, San Francisco, CA, USA



For independent coverage of the lawsuit, see the Boston Globe, June 7, 2009: Beijing Lesson Unlearned, The World (from the BBC, PRI, and WGBH), June 4, 2009: A Legal Dispute Over Remembering Tiananmen, the Times of London, May 4, 2009: Tiananmen activist Chai Ling sues makers of film about 1989 protest, and the New Yorker, May 7, 2009: The American Dream: The Lawsuit.




Jenzabar's Formal Response to Long Bow's Appeal

On May 29, 2009, one of Jenzabar's lawyers asked us to post the company's formal response to this appeal on our website. In the interests of free speech and an open discussion of the issues involved in the lawsuit, we have agreed to do so. Below is the original document in its entirety, as it was sent to us. Obviously Long Bow disagrees with and disputes many of the claims made in Jenzabar's response.


Jenzabar's Response to the Appeal

Jenzabar commenced suit because of Long Bow1's violation of basic tenets required for a free speech society - Namely, your statements cannot be false, cannot be with malice, and cannot infringe on the rights of others. These basic tenets are fundamental to a free society and are protected by the rule of law. It was our view that the statements on the Long Bow website were false, and Long Bow was unlawfully using our intellectually property and the intellectual property of others to further its own interests and aims. We are not challenging what Long Bow says in terms of message or expression - we are asking it to make truthful statements and to verify the statements that it makes.

The issues raised by this lawsuit raise fundamental questions regarding the scope of legal protection of persons injured by defamatory, infringing and potentially harmful communications in the internet age. Ex nihilo -- these issues have been created by humanity and now affect us all. What someone posts on the internet is now an issue of importance for historical figures, governments, corporations, individuals and even children - not only because of the ease of access, but also because these statements, pictures and blogs will last forever and will outlive those who knew whether these statements were true, false, malicious or benevolent. How this "internet" generation (the first internet generation) addresses these issues will be studied for internet generations to come.

The protection of individuals and their intellectual property on the internet requires the answering of questions perhaps never raised before and potentially the creation of a whole new set of protections because of the harm and injury that can result from at best -- innocent pictures, statements, blogs, and articles -- to at worst -- irresponsible speech and electronic publications, including falsehoods and half-truths. This is especially true in light of technological advances, which allow for instant transmission of ideas world-wide, but at the same time give rise to new abuses such as internet identity theft, cyber-bullying, posting questionable and unverified facts to one site but then referring to it in a blog and not to mention old abuses via this new medium, such as defamation, copyright infringement and trademark infringement.

The issues in our case against Long Bow although not as broad raise two important issues: 1) whether an internet site, which becomes aware that it has published and contains false information has any obligation to correct such, and 2) whether Long Bow's use of Jenzabar's federally registered marks as "metatags" within Long Bow's website constitutes a violation of trademark laws. Neither of these claims in any way hinders "free speech," insofar as both common law and statutory law have long provided causes of action for speech or other communications, which were either defamatory or violations of intellectual property laws.

More specifically, and as the Massachusetts Superior Court noted in its Memorandum and Order, Long Bow continued to post excerpts on its website of articles which had been proven to be inaccurate. The Court stated "the question becomes whether Long Bow had any kind of continuing duty to investigate the accuracy of the [article]" and held "There is no such duty." In footnotes, the Court noted that while "the media may do a disservice to vindicated individuals (such as the Duke lacrosse players) . . . there is no duty to do so", and the Court cited the limited obligation of a newspaper to provide fair and balanced reporting to "ongoing coverage of proceedings such as trials."

Jenzabar, while respecting the Court's ruling, believes that it fails to appreciate how defamatory statements cause harm and injury in the modern internet age. Reliance on comparisons to newspapers is no longer relevant (especially where newspapers and circulation are everywhere in a state of decline). Blogs and websites, such as Long Bow's, potentially reach the entire world population and every time that a reader "clicks" on a story - - it is "republished". Such "clicking" can go for infinity. The internet, therefore, allows defamatory and false statements to be spread with amazing speed and to an unlimited audience (far beyond the scope of the local newspaper). In many ways, bloggers and websites are potentially more dangerous to a democratic society which respects free speech since they are effectively unregulated, exist in "cyber-space", and can be operated for little or no cost outside the jurisdiction of our justice system.

Jenzabar, therefore, believes that the appellate courts need to reexamine the law of defamation in today's internet world, including whether there should be a duty to correct inaccurate information (rather than allowing it to continuously be "re-published"). This would be a logical and reasonable extension of the law into the internet and protect the countless innocent victims and their reputations from being tarnished by false accusations and harmful postings.

Similarly, Jenzabar's trademarks claims are supported by recent federal court rulings. The National Law Journal, in an article dated June 9, 2008 entitled "Courts show confusion over uses of 'metatags'", begins:

The use of a trademark in computer code words, called "metatags", by a competitor to boost its position in Internet searches infringes under the Lanham Trademark Act, according to the 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals [in North American Medical Corp. v. Axion Worldwide, Inc., 522 F.3d 1211 (2008)].

While the use and potential misuse of "metatags" is a new area of law, there is no dispute that Long Bow's website uses Jenzabar's protected marks in its metatags. Therefore, the argument by Long Bow that Jenzabar's lawsuit attempts to limit free speech is without merit and distorts the nature and substance of Jenzabar's claim (as well as the existing case law supporting such claim).

The issues we are pursuing, and the rights, which we are seeking to protect, are universal to all of us. They are rights and protections that belong to academic institutions (which generate intellectual property) and students (who often are the victims of cyber-bullying, malicious postings, false statements and indiscriminate postings) in the United States.

Because many times those injured by those now eternal statements, pictures, blogs have little or no recourse (or lack the resources to protect their rights through a long and protracted judicial process), Jenzabar believes it is its obligation to pursue its lawsuit for the purpose of both protecting its rights, as well as establishing thoughtful and well-reasoned legal precedent regarding the scope of freedom of the speech in the 21st century which benefits all of us in a democratic society. It is also a call that the rule of law must now focus itself on addressing these issues in the internet world.

Note on the Long Bow's Refusal to Meet With Ling Chai.

It should not be lost on the reader of this website that Ms. Chai herself requested a meeting with Long Bow to discuss a resolution of this dispute. Long Bow simply would not meet with Ms. Chai to discuss a resolution of this case. The very young inspiring woman that Long Bow allegedly studied carefully free of any political agenda was now refused a meeting. On the one hand, Longbow chides her for not accepting an interview but, on the other, Longbow will not meet with her to resolve the differences. One person who sued the Company, but later came to her aid, wrote in his statement:

Ms. Chai does not deserve to have been vilified in the media or on the internet the way she has and continues to be. Although I provided a statement to Ms. Chai regarding the allegations that were made on my behalf to report that these allegations were withdrawn when no evidence supporting them was found, Ms. Chai has told me that these allegations made in the complaint were picked up by the media and used by those who want to push a particular political agenda to tarnish her reputation as a person who championed the cause of freedom and democracy. She doesn't deserve to be treated this way.

1The Long Bow Group, Inc. is referred to as Long Bow.



Note: we have posted Jenzabar's formal response to our appeal at the specific request of one the company's lawyers. Long Bow disagrees with and disputes many of the claims made in Jenzabar's response.

Related Pages: Summary of Lawsuit | About Chai Ling and Jenzabar, Inc.