Events of Beijing Spring 1989:
Black, George and Robin Munro, Black Hands of Beijing (New York: John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993) - includes excerpts on
key events of late May, the story of
one worker's experience during the protests, and a detailed account of
the night of June 3-4. (This title
is available through Amazon.com.)
Unger, Jonathan, editor, The Pro-Democracy Protests
in China: Reports from the Provinces (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.,
1991, available through Amazon.com).
Includes the following excerpts:
Walder, Andrew G. and Gong Xiaoxia, Workers in the Tiananmen Protests: The Politics
of the Beijing Workers' Autonomous Federation, The
Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, No. 29, January
Original source documents from 1989:
A Chinese government account of Beijing Spring 1989:
The Truth About the
Turmoil, edited by the Editorial Board of The Truth about
the Beijing Turmoil (Beijing: Beijing Publishing House, 1990).
The role of the media during Beijing Spring 1989:
Black, George and Robin Munro, Black Hands of Beijing
(New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993) - includes an excerpt
on the foreign media coverage of
Hertsgaard, Mark, "China
Coverage Strong on What, Weak on Why?" Rolling Stone,
Sept. 21, 1989.
Jakobson, Linda, Lies in Ink,
Truth in Blood: The Role and Impact of the Chinese Media During the
Beijing Spring of '89, Discussion Paper D-6 (Cambridge, MA:
Joan Shorenstein Barone Center, John F. Kennedy School of
Government, Harvard University, 1990).
Turmoil at Tiananmen: A
Study of U.S. Press Coverage of the Beijing Spring of 1989
(Cambridge, MA: Joan Shorenstein Barone Center, John F. Kennedy
School of Government, Harvard University, 1992).
Film-related themes and issues:
Barmé, Geremie, "History for the Masses," from Jonathan Unger,
ed., Using the Past to Serve the Present (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe,
Inc., 1993 - available through Amazon.com).
Barmé, Geremie, Shades of Mao (Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe,
1996) - includes excerpts on the cult of Mao that has persisted despite his
death. Available at Amazon.com.
Barmé, Geremie, "To Screw Foreigners
is Patriotic: China's Avant-Garde Nationalists," in Jonathan Unger, ed.,
Chinese Nationalism, (Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1996 - available
Konrád, George (with Iván Szelényi), "Revolution or Reform," from Konrád, The
Melancholy of Rebirth: Essays from Post-Communist Central Europe, 1989-1994
(New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1995 -
available at Amazon.com).
Kraus, Richard Curt, Brushes With Power: Modern Politics and the Chinese
Art of Calligraphy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991) -
includes excerpts on Chinese calligraphy and its relationship to politics
and power, and on the 1976 Tiananmen Square Incident. Available at
Lenin, V.I., "The State and Revolution" (1917).
Leys, Simon, "Human Rights in China,"
from The Burning Forest: Essays on Chinese Culture and Politics
(New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1986).
Leys, Simon, excerpt on "the destruction of the city of Peking"
from Chinese Shadows (New
York: Viking Penguin Inc., 1978).
Liu Xiaobo, "That Holy Word, 'Revolution'," from
Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China, Second Edition,
edited by Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom and Elizabeth J. Perry (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994).
Nathan, Andrew J., "Chinese Democracy in 1989: Continuity and Change,"
in Problems of Communism, vol. 38, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1989).
On the Eve - China '89 Symposium
(Bolinas, California, 27-29 April, 1989), includes
discussions of Chinese politics and culture, and the key issues
faced in China in the late 1980s and 1990s, with introductory
essays by Marlowe Hood, Perry Link, Geremie R. Barmé, Andrew
J. Nathan, Leo Ou-fan Lee, and Merle Goldman.
Schell, Orville, "China's Andrei Sakharov,"
an article about Fang Lizhi, from TheAtlantic, May 1988.
Spence, Jonathan D., "The Gate and the Square,"
from Children of the Dragon (New York: Collier
Books, Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990).
Yau Ma Tei, "Maosoleum," from
Geremie Barmé and John Minford, editors, Seeds of Fire
(New York: The Noonday Press, 1989).
Chinese rock music and the original music in the film:
Barmé, Geremie, "Official
Bad Boys or True Rebels?" Human Rights Tribune, Volume
III, Number 4, Winter 1992, pp. 17-20.
Kraus, Richard Curt, excerpt on "The East is Red," from
Pianos and Politics in China: Middle-Class Ambitions and the
Struggle over Western Music (New York: Oxford University Press,
Pevsner, Mark, "The Gate of Heavenly Peace" Original Music Program Notes,
Reactions to "The Gate of Heavenly Peace":
Barmé, Geremie, "The
Rhetoric of Democratic Denunciation," excerpt from
"Totalitarian Nostalgia," from In The Red: Contemporary Chinese
Culture (New York: Columbia University Press, forthcoming
White, Jerry, "Squaring Off Over
Tiananmen: Critics Clamor at the Gate of Heavenly Peace,"
The Independent, January/February 1996.
Woodward, Richard, "Anatomy of a
Massacre," The Village Voice, 4 June 1996.
Ye Ren, "The Democracy Movement in
Exile is Trapped by Communist Mentality," published in the July
and August 1995 issues of The 90's. (Also available in Chinese, in
both text and
Earlier films by the Long Bow Group:
One Village in China: A Review Symposium,
Oral History Review, 15 (Fall, 1987).
Additional articles on other websites:
Ansen, David, "Raise a Red Flag," from
Newsweek, Oct. 9, 1995, detailing the controversy at the New York Film Festival, where "The
Gate of Heavenly Peace" premiered in October 1995.
Taylor, Charles, "
Gate of Heaven," The Boston Phoenix, Jan. 5, 1996, a review of the film.
Blogs about China:
Human Rights Organizations:
Film and History - Resources and Links:
Film Studies - Resources and Links:
Geremie R. Barmé and Linda Jaivin, New Ghosts, Old Dreams (New York: Random House, 1992).
John K. Fairbank, China: A New History (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991).
Orville Schell, Mandate of Heaven (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994).
Jonathan D. Spence, The Search for Modern China (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1990).
Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom and Elizabeth J. Perry, eds.,
Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China, Second Edition
(Boulder, CO: Westview, 1994). Includes additional readings on the following topics:
Beijing Spring 1989 and the Aftermath:
Amnesty International, People's Republic of China: Preliminary Findings of
Killings of Unarmed Civilians, Arbitrary Arrests, and Summary Executions since
June 3, 1989 (New York, 1989).
Article 19: The Year of the Lie: Censorship and Disinformation in the PRC,
1989 (London, August 1989).
Asia Watch, The Case of Wang Juntao (New York, March 1991).
- Chinese Workers Receive Harsh Sentences (New York, March 1991).
- Punishment Season: Human Rights in China after Martial Law (New York, February 1990).
- Repression in China since June 4, 1989 (New York, 1990).
- Repression in China since June 4, 1989: Cumulative Data (New York, January 1991).
- Rough Justice in Beijing: Punishing the Black Hands of Tiananmen Square (New York, January 1991).
- Updates on Arrests 1-3, (New York, January, February, April 1991).
Bachman, David, and Yang Dali, eds. and trans., Yan Jiaqi and China's Struggle
for Democracy (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1991).
Barmé, Geremie, "Traveling Heavy: The Intellectual Baggage of the
Chinese Diaspora," Problems of Communism (January-April 1991).
Black, George and Robin Munro, Black Hands of Beijing (New York: John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993).
Buruma, Ian, Bad Elements: Chinese Rebels from Los Angeles to Beijing (New York: Random House, 2001).
Calhoun, Craig, "Revolution and Repression in Tiananmen Square," Society
Cheung Tai Ming, "The PLA and Its Role between April-June 1989," in China's
Military: The PLA in 1990/1991, ed. Richard Yang (Boulder, CO: Westview
Des Forges, Roger, et al., eds., China: The Crisis of 1989, Origins and Implications,
2 vols. (Buffalo: Council on International Studies, State University of New
Dittmer, Lowell, "The Tiananmen Massacre," Problems of Communism (September-October
Dreyer, June, "The PLA and the Power Struggle of 1989," Problems of Communism
Duke, Michael, The Iron House: A Memoir of the Chinese Democracy Movement
and the Tiananmen Massacre (Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith, 1990).
Fang Lizhi, Bringing Down the Great Wall: Writings on Science, Culture and
Democracy in China (New York: Knopf, 1991).
Fathers, Michael, and Andrew Higgins, Tiananmen: The Rape of Peking (London:
The Independent, 1989).
Furth, Charlotte, "Democracy in China: Some Historical Reflections on the June
1989 Movement," China Report 25, 4 (October-December 1989).
Gold, Thomas, "The Resurgence of Civil Society in China," Journal of Democracy
1, 1 (Winter 1990).
Goldman, Merle, "China's Great Leap Backward," Journal of Democracy 1,
1 (Winter 1990).
---, Sowing the Seeds of Democracy in China: Political Reform in the Deng Xiaoping Era (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994).
Han Minzhu and Hua Sheng, eds., Cries for Democracy: Writings and Speeches
from the 1989 Chinese Democracy Movement (Princeton: Princeton University
He Xin, trans. and intro. by Geremie Barmé, "Word of Advice to the Politburo,"
Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, no. 23 (January 1990).
Hicks, George, ed., The Broken Mirror: China after Tiananmen (Chicago:
St. James Press, 1990).
Huang Yasheng, "The Origins of China's Pro-Democracy Movement and the Government's
Response: A Tale of Two Reforms," Fletcher Forum of World Affairs (Winter
Human Rights in China, ed., Children of the Dragon: The Story of Tiananmen
Square (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990).
Joffe, Ellis, "The Tiananmen Crisis and the Politics of the PLA," in China's
Military: The PLA in 1990/1991, ed. Richard Yang (Boulder: Westview Press,
Landsberger, Stefan, "The 1989 Student Demonstrations in Beijing: A Chronology
of Events," China Information 4, 1 (Summer 1989).
Liu Binyan, China's Crisis, China's Hope: Essays from an Intellectual in
Exile (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990).
Luo Qiping et al., "The 1989 Pro-Democracy Movement: Student Organizations and
Strategies," China Information 5, 2 (Autumn 1990).
MacFarquhar, Roderick, "The End of the Chinese Revolution," New York Review
of Books (June 1989).
Maier, John H., "Tian'anmen 1989: The View from Shanghai," China Information
5, 1 (Summer 1990).
Ming Bao, June Four: A Chronicle of the Chinese Democratic Uprising (Fayetteville:
University of Arkansas Press, 1989).
Nathan, Andrew J. and Perry Link, eds., The Tiananmen Papers, compiled by Zhang Liang (New York: Public Affairs, 2001).
Ogden, Suzanne et al., eds., China's Search for Democracy: The Student and
the Mass Movement of 1989 (Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1992).
Oksenberg, Michel et al., eds., Beijing Spring, 1989: Confrontation and Conflict
(Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1990).
Pieke, Frank, and Fons Lamboo, Inventory of the Collection of the Chinese
People's Movement, Spring 1989 (Amsterdam: Institute of Social History,
Porter, Edgar, Journalism from Tiananmen (Honolulu: University of
Pye, Lucian W., "Tiananmen and Chinese Political Culture: The Escalation
of Confrontation from Moralizing to Revenge," Asian Survey 30,
4 (April 1990).
Saich, Tony, ed., The Chinese People's Movement: Perspectives on Spring
1989 (Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1990).
Simmie, Scott, and Bob Nixon, Tiananmen Square: An Eyewitness Account
of the Chinese People's Passionate Quest for Democracy (Seattle: University
of Washington Press, 1989).
Strand, David, "Protest in Beijing: Civil Society and Public Sphere
in China," Problems of Communism (May-June 1990).
Wakeman, Frederic, "The June Fourth Movement in China," Items
Walder, Andrew, "Beyond the Deng Era: China's Political Dilemma,"
Asian Affairs: An American Review 16, 2 (Summer 1989).
Walder, Andrew, "The Political Sociology of the Beijing Upheaval of
1989," Problems of Communism (September-October 1989).
Zhao Dingxin, The Power of Tiananmen: State-Society Relations and the 1989 Beijing Student Movement (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001).